LGBT Rights

From Advocatespedia


The fight for LGBT rights has been a stormy road filled with great setbacks and momentous victories. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have historically experienced extreme prejudice, harassment, and legal persecution. Prejudice against homosexuality was ingrained in society's thinking and expectations by the middle of the 20th century, as seen by the prosecution of same-sex activity and the use of force by the police to harass people. The laws and propaganda that portrayed LGBT people as dangerous and immoral created a hostile socio-political environment that led to many arrests and discrimination against them.
This article explores the historical suffering of homosexuals, emphasising the negative effects that political campaigns and laws have on members of the LGBT community. It looks at the impact of activists like Laud Humphrey, who brought attention to the difficult conditions gay men experience. It also looks at the many ways that legal systems and cultures respond to homosexuality, including the harsh penalties that some Middle Eastern nations have for homosexuality. The development of sodomy laws in the US is also covered, detailing the path from criminalization to decriminalisation and the wider impact this has on LGBT rights across the world.
The article explores the turning points in the LGBTQ rights movement over the years, from the founding of early advocacy groups to the crucial Stonewall Riots that sparked the movement. It draws attention to the advancements made in the 1970s and beyond, such as noteworthy court rulings and the rise in the number of LGBTQ people holding public office.
The battle for complete equality is far from ended, notwithstanding the progress gained. The essay discusses current concerns including the prevalence of hate crimes, discrimination in the workplace, and the obstacles LGBTQ couples must overcome to adopt a child. In a world where complete acceptance and acknowledgement of LGBT rights are still a ways off, this essay emphasises the significance of continuing to fight for and defend these rights by examining both the historical background and contemporary issues.

The Plight of Homosexuals Before Recognition:

The experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the 1950s and 60s—who were routinely discriminated against, harassed, and arrested—emphasises the ideology and expectations of people. At the time, legislation was still focused on the criminalisation of homosexuality through “gay behaviour” in the bedroom, with violent police harassment in private and public settings. Political campaigns at the time depicted gay people as dangerous and harmful, and enforcement of laws designed to control and oppress them disproportionately affected gender-non-confirming people over straight people. Arrests of effeminate gay men and lesbians were commonplace under laws that criminalised dressing or behaving in a way that the police officers deemed inappropriate for someone of a certain sex Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.
The political campaigns of the USA affected LGBT people severely. Thousands of homosexuals were dismissed from their jobs or not employed because of their sexual identifications, and the Post offices refused to deliver gay publications on the grounds that they were obscene. New laws were introduced with the increase in penalties for the violation of Sodomy laws. Even the FBI was acting against LGBT people, the FBI and other law enforcement agencies began to keep a close watch on gay subculture and kept files that included the names of suspected homosexuals Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.
Laud Humphrey in his book The Tearoom Trade talked about the plight of Gay men, they were to meet in old toilets to have intimacy, Humphry said that every kind of people were present in the Tearoom, from poor to rich and young to old. To avoid prejudice and discrimination, homosexuals used to pretend as heterosexuals. In the USA around the 1950s homosexuals were not treated fairly, although there were few occupations in which homosexuals were tolerated, in most they were not. The revolution in society started after the Tearoom Trade book is published by Humphrey Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>. 
Homosexuality is dealt with differently in different countries, Middle Eastern countries impose capital punishment for homosexuality. Fatwa 371 in Islam says homosexuality, or sodomy, is prohibited in Islam. Allah chastised the nation of Hazrat Lut (Alaihis Salam) in this world as a result of their transgression. The Imam Abu Hanifa states that the offender shall be pushed to death off a mountain, however, there is no set punishment for this offence. But a Qazi will carry out this sentence. Since there is no Islamic Qazi or administration in our nation, he should honestly apologise to Allah and seek his pardon, never engaging in this behaviour again Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.
The sodomy laws that were inherited by the United States from the colonial era in the 17th century constitutionally prohibited a range of sexual behaviours that are considered to be illegal, illegitimate, unlawful, unnatural, and/or immoral. Many sodomy-related laws used definitions that were sufficiently wide to forbid various sexual actions between people of different sexes, sometimes even including married couples, even though they frequently targeted same-sex relationships. USA as it is the largest economy can influence other countries Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>. Most U.S. states repealed their anti-sodomy laws as a result of the steady decriminalisation of American sexuality throughout the middle to late 20th century. In Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), the Supreme Court maintained the validity of the country's sodomy laws during this period. The sodomy laws in the remaining 14 states—Alabama, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and Virginia—were, however, declared unconstitutional in 2003 when the Supreme Court overturned the ruling in Lawrence v. Texas. After the USA made sodomy laws unconstitutional LGBT rights throughout the world were liberated.

LGBTQ rights movements and contemporary problems:

The American homosexual rights movement began in the 1900s, when German immigrant Henry Gerber created the first gay rights group that was officially registered. His group released a few editions of "Friendship and Freedom," the first gay-interest newsletter in the nation. The organisation broke up in 1925 as a result of police raids. The following few decades saw a stagnation of the LGBT rights movement.

In 1950, Harry Hay founded the Mattachine Foundation, one of the nation's first gay rights groups. it started off small, Although it started off small, the foundation, sought to improve the lives of gay men through discussion groups and related activities, it expanded after its founding member was arrested in 1952 Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.

Gay rights made headway in the 1960s, a decade that also witnessed the acceptance of gender identities other than male and female. Illinois decriminalised homosexuality in 1961 and screened The Rejected, the first documentary about homosexuality, on a local TV station in California. Illinois was the first state to do away with its anti-sodomy laws. The word "transgender" was first used in 1965 by Dr. John Oliven in his book Sexual Hygiene and Pathology to refer to people who were born into the wrong sex.

Despite these advancements, LGBTQ+ people continued to face discrimination and harassment in public places like pubs and restaurants. They also lived in a sort of urban subculture. In reality, liquor regulations in New York City prohibited serving alcohol to gay men and women in public because they deemed homosexual gatherings to be "disorderly." Bartenders who believed a client was gay would either refuse to sell them alcohol or send them out of the establishment out of fear of being shut down by the police. In other cases, they would provide the client alcohol but have them sit facing away from other guests in order to keep them from mingling Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.

The Stonewall Inn gay rights movement in 1969 altered public perceptions of homosexuals and lesbians. In Greenwich Village, the homosexual club Stonewall Inn was a landmark due to its size, affordability, dance policies, and acceptance of drag queens and young people experiencing homelessness. However, New York City police attacked the Stonewall Inn early on June 28, 1969. As police carried the detained into police vans, customers and area residents, fed up with years of police harassment, started hurling items at the officers. After a while, the scenario descended into a full-fledged riot, and demonstrations continued for five more days.
The increased visibility and activism of LGBTQ+ individuals in the 1970s helped the movement make progress on multiple fronts. In 1977, for instance, the New York Supreme Court ruled that transgender woman Renée Richards could play at the United States Open tennis tournament as a woman.
Furthermore, a number of openly LGBTQ+ people were appointed to public office: In 1974, Kathy Kozachenko became the first African American woman elected to public office when she was granted a seat on the Ann Harbour City Council in Michigan. Harvey Milk was the first openly homosexual man elected to a political position in California when he ran for San Francisco city supervisor in 1978 on a platform supporting gay rights. Milk requested gay rights activist and artist Gilbert Baker to design an insignia that would serve as a representation of the cause and a source of pride. In 1978, Baker introduced the first rainbow flag, which he had created and sewn together, during a pride march. The following year, in 1979, more than 100,000 people took part in the first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.

While recent reports on LGBTQ rights may support the idea that prejudice against LGBTQ people is decreasing, the reality is less obvious on a worldwide scale; homophobic prejudice has affected and still affects LGBTQ persons in a variety of political, social, and economic circumstances Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.

A significant factor in determining views towards homosexuality is religiosity. This idea is distinct from religious identification because religious identification refers to how people identify with their religion. In contrast, religiosity gauges how much weight a person gives to religion by engagement in religious practices like prayer and church attendance. Several researchers have discovered a negative correlation between homosexuality and religiosity.

A person's intensity of religion is an indication of their piety and dedication to their faith; religious activities provide religious persons with the chance to connect and build networks with other religious members of their congregation (an in-group). Those who regularly participate in church activities are more likely to be exposed to official church doctrines that prohibit homosexuality. Sustained involvement cultivates a sense of connection, unity, and solidarity within the congregation. Furthermore, authoritarianism and religion are related. Numerous faiths and religious organisations are characterised by authoritarian traits; these traits include rigidity, obedience, and willful surrender to a predetermined hierarchy. Authoritarian systems are inclined to be antagonistic and wary of outsiders since they are often quite conventional and place a high value on established moral standardsCite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.

Even after the movements and recognition of gay rights, they have not been absolutely obtained. In the USA, hate crimes against the LGBTQ are still prevalent across the country, In 2015, nearly one in five hate crimes were committed due to sexual orientation and 2% of crimes because of gender identity. In just 2015, 13 trans women of colour were killed because of hate. The hate against homosexuals extends to employment too, In many states of the USA gays and trans can be fired because of their gender identity. The state of the USA completely doesn’t give authority to queer couples to adopt children. Only a few states of the country allow gay couples to be eligible for adoptionCite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.


The path to LGBTQ+ equality has been paved with substantial setbacks and arduous gains. Lesbian, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender people have historically faced intense discrimination, legal persecution, and social exclusion. The middle of the 20th century was especially terrible because of laws and social mores that criminalised and excluded LGBTQ+ individuals, creating a climate of fear and prejudice. The decriminalisation of sodomy laws in the United States represented a significant turning point that had an impact on the whole world, and activists like as Laud Humphrey were instrumental in bringing these concerns to the attention of the public.
Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the LGBTQ+ rights movement gained traction thanks to historic occasions like the Stonewall Riots and important social and legal developments in the 1970s and later years. Greater visibility and acceptance of LGBTQ+ people were the results of these initiatives, and prominent appointments to public office as well as the development of iconic symbols of pride like the rainbow flag were among the tangible results.
Even with the advancements, there are still modern problems. The continuous fight for complete equality is highlighted by hate crimes, discrimination in the workplace, and obstacles to adoption rights for LGBTQ+ couples. The persistence of discrimination and resistance is fueled by religious and authoritarian beliefs, highlighting how difficult it is to gain public acceptance.
In conclusion, even if the struggle for LGBTQ+ rights has made great progress, there is still a long way to go until full equality. Maintaining support for and defence of these rights while acknowledging their historical background and tackling current problems is imperative. Although the path is far from complete, LGBTQ+ people can achieve full recognition and respect in the future if they work hard and stand together.