Violation of girls Rights in Aligarh Muslim University

From Advocatespedia


The prestigious and illustrious Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) in India has long served as a hub for the intellectual and cultural development of the Muslim community. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded AMU in 1875, and since then, it has been instrumental in forming contemporary education within an Islamic context. Nevertheless, AMU has consistently been the target of accusations and criticism over how women are treated and their rights on campus, even in spite of its contributions to academics and society. These accusations include a wide variety of topics, including insufficient safety precautions, discriminatory practices, and restrictive legislation as well as institutional policies that are biased.
The primary theological source of Islam, the Quran, was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 CE. Historically, interpretations of the Quran have frequently reflected viewpoints that are male-centric. Certain verses in the Quran, including those found in Surah An-Nisa and Surah Al-Baqarah, have drawn criticism for institutionalising male supremacy and fostering gender hierarchies. Over time, these views have shaped the sociocultural makeup of several Muslim communities, including those at universities like AMU.
This article explores the various ways that women's rights are violated at AMU. It does this by looking at the historical background, individual cases of gender discrimination, and the root factors that keep these problems going. It also looks at the continuous fights for justice and equality that female students and faculty members have within the institution, emphasising their activism, court cases, and the support of the media and civil society in promoting gender equity. This article attempts to shed light on the difficulties experienced by women at AMU and the wider ramifications for gender equality at academic institutions run by conservative interpretations of Islamic teachings through a thorough study.

Islam about Women:

The central religious text of Islam was gradually revealed to the Prophet Mohommed between 610 and 632 CE Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
The Quran contains several verses in several chapters that promote the hierarchy of men over women, this hierarchy ingrains an idea of superiority in men over women. Surah An-Nisa (4:11) states that a male should receive a share equivalent to that of two females Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
Surah An-Nisa (4:34), talks about the roles of men and women within the marriage society, it says that men are protectors and protectors and maintainers of women, and the Surah An-Nisa (4:3) permits men to have up to 4 wives under certain conditions. Critics claim that this practice inherently creates an imbalance in marital relationships, favouring men. but these verses don’t include any more information on how women should be protected, the lack of clarity among the verses made the women suffer due to misinterpretation Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag</ref>.
The verses Surah An-Nur (24:31) and Surah Al-Ahzab (33:59) implement dress codes for women. The verse Surah An-Nisa (4:34) appears to permit husbands to discipline their wives. These three verses restrict the freedom of Muslim women.’
Islam gives complexities to women from birth, according to Surah At-Talaq (65:4) if the guardian of the girl wishes the minor girl to be married then he can create a contract of marriage on behalf of the minor girl. After the marriage, Islam gives unilateral rights to men for divorce like Talaq, without needing the consent of their wives, while women have more complex and restricted procedures like Khula Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
These verses of the Quran affect mainly women in Muslim countries, in many Muslim countries, Civil law is developed from the Quran interpretations Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.

Violation of women’s rights at Aligarh Muslim University:

The distinguished and illustrious Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) in India has a convoluted past when it comes to gender equality and women's rights. Since its founding in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, AMU has made a substantial contribution to the cultural and intellectual advancement of the Muslim population in India. Nonetheless, the organisation has been the target of several accusations and condemnations throughout the years over the infringement of women's rights Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
Women were eventually incorporated into AMU's educational programme. Since its founding in 1937, the Women's College has given women access to higher education while maintaining an Islamic cultural context. Despite these advancements, cultural perceptions around gender roles continued to restrict women's involvement in recreational and academic activities Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
Restrictions placed on female students living in dormitories are one of the most contentious parts of AMU's breaches of women's rights. Curfews, travel restrictions, and rigid clothing rules are a few of these limits. Students who identify as female have expressed feeling treated less favourably than their male colleagues, who have more freedom and independence Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
The university's primary library was closed to female students in Abdullah Hall in 2014, reportedly to keep them from "distracting" male students. This decision sparked a big uproar at the time. This choice exposed the institution's pervasive gender prejudices and caused national indignation.
AMU has long been beset by reports of sexual harassment and insufficient safety precautions for female students. Both on campus and in the neighbourhood, there have been several reports of harassment events. The university administration has come under fire frequently for failing to take swift, decisive action to address these problems, which has created a climate of impunity. A female student claimed that she was harassed in 2019 while studying in the library by a group of male pupils. She complained, but the university administration did not respond quickly enough, and students protested, calling for stronger safety protocols and harsher penalties for offenders Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.
Female faculty members at AMU have also faced discrimination and bias. Instances of gender-based discrimination in promotions, allocation of research grants, and participation in academic committees have been reported. This has hindered the professional growth of female academicians and perpetuated a male-dominated academic culture.

The bulk of students at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) are Muslims. The following are the guidelines for AMU's girls' dorm: 1. After 6:00 PM, women are not permitted to exit the hostel. This is against Article 19(1)(d) of the Indian Constitution, which, with the exception of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, grants everyone the freedom to travel around the nation at large. 2. The Maulana Azad Library at AMU is home to the biggest library in Asia and is open till midnight. But dorm regulations prohibit female students from using the library after hours, which is against multiple fundamental rights Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag /ref>:

  1. Article 14: The rule violates the principles of equality before the law and equal protection under the law by discriminating against women. Prejudice is forbidden, and everyone is treated equally under the law subject to reasonable restrictions—but barring women from entering is not one of those acceptable restrictions.
  2. Article 15: Discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, gender, or place of birth is prohibited by Article 15, which is also broken by this rule.
  3. Article 17: Although untouchability is outlawed in Article 17, the norm subtly upholds discrimination similar to that.
  4. Article 21: The discriminatory regulations violate one's right to life and liberty, including the freedom to use a library for research.

These rules also violate international human rights norms, specifically Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which states that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag </ref>.


The persistent problems with women's rights and treatment at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) draw attention to important concerns that continue to exist in educational establishments that are influenced by orthodox interpretations of Islamic doctrine. AMU has battled with allegations of gender discrimination, restrictive regulations, and inadequate safety measures for female students and teachers, despite its significant contributions to education and culture. These problems show the urgent need for institutional adjustments in addition to reflecting larger socioeconomic and cultural views towards gender within particular Muslim communities.
Despite being a fundamental scripture for Muslims, the Quran has frequently been read in ways that support viewpoints that are male-centric, which has contributed to the systematic gender inequities that are evident at AMU. The socio-cultural dynamics of universities like AMU have been influenced by verses like those in Surah An-Nisa and Surah Al-Baqarah, which critics claim to institutionalise gender hierarchies and male superiority. AMU's stringent rules, discriminatory practices, and insufficient reactions to security issues serve as prime examples of how these interpretations might materialise in real-world situations.
From limited mobility and unfair access to resources like the university library to incidents of sexual harassment and gender-based discrimination in academic and professional success, women at AMU have experienced several obstacles. These difficulties not only impede the professional and personal development of female faculty members and students, but they also support an unfair and unequal culture inside the organisation.
However, the activism and challenges of AMU's female students and professors also show a tenacious pursuit of gender justice and fairness. Their initiatives, which are backed by media advocacy and civil society, are essential to confronting and changing the university's discriminatory practices and policies. Protests, legal fights, and ongoing lobbying for equal rights are essential to fostering an atmosphere in which women may prosper without fear of prejudice or discrimination.
In conclusion, tackling the abuses of women's rights at AMU necessitates a multipronged strategy that includes implementing institutional changes to end discriminatory practices, reexamining and reinterpreting religious texts with an emphasis on gender equality, and cultivating a climate of safety and respect for all staff members and students. By doing this, AMU can continue to build on its reputation as one of the world's best universities while simultaneously acting as a role model for gender justice and equity in academic environments that are inspired by Islamic principles.